What is Bone Grafting?
Over a period of time, the jaw bone associated with missing teeth resorbs. This often leaves a condition in which there is poor quality and quantity of bone suitable for the placement of dental implants. In these situations, most patients are not candidates for the placement of dental implants and require additional methods to facilitate this process.
With bone grafting, there is now an opportunity to not only replace bone where it is missing, but also have the ability to promote new bone growth in that particular location.
Types of Bone Grafts
Autogenous Bone Grafts
Autogenous bone grafts, also known as autografts, are taken from the patient’s own bone. The bone is typically harvested from the chin, jaw, lower leg, hip, or the skull. Autogenous bone grafts are advantageous in that the graft material contains living cellular elements that enhances bone growth, also eliminating the risk of rejection.
One downside to the autograft is that it requires a second procedure to harvest the bone from elsewhere in the body. Depending on the patients medical history, a second procedure may not be recommended.
Allogenic bone, or allograft, is non-vital bone harvested from a cadaver, then processed using a freeze-dry method to extract the water via a vacuum. Unlike autogenous bone, allogenic bone cannot produce new bone by itself. Rather, it serves as a framework, or scaffold, over which native bone from the surrounding bony walls can grow to fill the defect.
Xenogenic bone is derived from non-living bone of another species, usually a cow or pig. The bone is processed at very high temperatures to avoid the potential for immune rejection and contamination. Like allogenic grafts, xenogenic grafts serve only as a framework for bone from the surrounding area to grow and fill the void.
Both allogenic and xenogenic bone grafting have the advantage of not requiring a second procedure to harvest the patient’s own bone, as with autografts. However, because these options lack an autograft’s bone-forming properties, bone regeneration may take longer than with autografts, and have a less predictable outcome.
Bone Graft Substitutes
As a substitute to using real bone many synthetic materials are also available as safe and proven alternatives, including:
Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM)/Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft (DFDBA)
This product is processed allograft bone, containing collagen, proteins, and growth factors that are extracted from the allograft bone. It is available in the form of powder, putty, chips, or as a gel that can be injected through a syringe.
Graft composites consist of other bone graft materials and growth factors to achieve the benefits of a variety of substances. Some combinations may include: collagen/ceramic composite, which closely resembles the composition of natural bone, DBM combined with bone marrow cells, which aid in the growth of new bone, or a collagen/ceramic/autograft composite.
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are proteins naturally produced in the body that promote and regulate bone formation and healing.
Synthetic materials also have the advantage of not requiring a second procedure to harvest bone, reducing potential risk and post-operative pain.
Contact Precision Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery online or by phone at (623) 518-2325.